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This article assesses the impact of the European Union’s anti-discrimination policy on the Roma, with a focus on the 2000 Race Equality Directive and post-2004 enlargement developments. It explores the recent expansion of EU attention and action regarding discrimination and the Roma and then considers the direct and indirect results in terms of new national legislation and institutions in old and new Member States, Roma discrimination cases in national and international courts, public views on the Roma and discrimination, and changes in the actual situation of this minority. Overall, I find importantly a significant increase in interest, attention, and action by the EU regarding the Roma, gradual but important changes by governments of Member States, yet continuing discrimination, and ultimately little impact as yet on the lives of most Roma.