open access


In the last several years, there has been a surprising number of energy-related disputes in the WTO. In seven such cases, the EU has taken the role of respondent. There are four different groups of these cases: the first are disputes concerning EU standards on biofuels and other renewable energy sources; the second are disputes on EU Member State measures implementing these EU standards on biofuels and renewables; the third are cases directed against internal market  measures in the field of energy;  and  the  fourth  concern  EU anti-dumping duties. These disputes are vital, as they could affect the future of EU energy law and policy, with implications for the internal market, environmental protection and national security.